The key aspect of the rear cassette, larger is easier to go up hill. The 10 tooth in this case is only used at high speeds (tail wind, down hill). The link below shows gear ratios of a bike. I assumed a 36 small chain ring and the existing 25 tooth rear cassette as the largest ring. Climbing with this means a 1.44 gear ratio. Change this to a 3 tooth, and the result is 1.2 gear ration, or 17% easier! Personal experience with this type of gear ratio change often equates to a 10 - 15 bpm reduction in HR when climbing. This cna be the difference between Z2 or 4 in some cases. The speed may be less, or the cadence higher to get the same speed, but the HR, which is really important in a triathlon, will be more manageable with a larger rear cassette. Get the 10 / 30. http://www.bikecalc.com/gear_ratios
TSS from a swim (or other work out with no HR or power data) is estimated based on speed settings within Training peaks. These should be set to be accurate based on current training speeds. In this way, these workouts are also contributing well to the fitness picture.
A few ways to answer this question. 1 - The race was an A race, then rest or easy swim or bike. Enjoy a few days, major goal met (hopefully)2 - The race was a B race, likely not rest, easy swim or bike. Continue planning for the A race to come. 3 - The race was a C race, this race was about training as much as race practice. Pending the distance of the A, B or C race, the day after may be Rest, may be light training or continued normal training. As far as running for recovery. I do not recommend it at any time for recovery purposes. Make all runs count towards fitness. Use the bike, swims, yoga, long walks with your spouse or child, for recovery.
Our goal is to maximize the Blue fitness (CTL, Chronic Training Load) line. This is a math function based on TSS (Training Stress Score). This is calculated from the intensity (HR or Power) and duration of each activity. Most amateurs can build fitness at 5 - 12 points per week. A lighter week every 2 -3 weeks to permit rest, and the body to adapt. Coupled to this is the orange Form (TSB, Training Stress Balance) and Pink Fatigue (ATL, Acute Training Load). These also use TSS but in different ways. The Orange Form is a 6 week formula of how fresh the athlete ought to feel. During periods of hard training this will deeply negative. For most athletes, more than -35 is a sign of over training, and rest is needed. When we approach races, we back of training (Taper), letting this rise to +20 to +35. The higher this number, the more rested the athlete is. If the race is a B or C category, we may not taper and such a race as training. An A race will let form rise to near or within this range.The pink ATL is a 2 week formula of TSS. This will move faster and is also an indicator of fatigue, which the name implies. Numbers greater than 135 for most people are a sign of over training. Note, these ranges are unique to each person, their activities, their genetics, desire, life stress, etc... Chris Froome will carry considerably higher numbers than that above. Conversely, another may not come close, but feel fatigued. The fatigue could be lack of sleep or life stress. TrainingPeaks numbers only measure training stress, not family, work, financial, parents, peer group ...etc stress. These could be contributing to the fatigue. At the end of the day, listen to your body. Push in training, but learn to listen too, possibly adjust the rest day, or make an interval workout all zone 2, or zone 2 and shorter. See Training Peaks help menus for exact math, and or more descriptive levels of detail.
Zone 2 Training is necessary in a build phase of 2 - 5 months. the goal of base building is encourage at burning and efficiency in the body. Efficiency in both cardio and fat burning. As the body adapts, it gets stronger a well. There is of course a limit to this affect. It is why Ironman and all coaches recommend a 2 - 4 month period of base building. Allow the body time to adapt and prepare for harder work outs ahead in the build and peak phases. Even for trained athletes, a period of the training year will be dedicated to build base as this. Bio-mechanically, a side form strength increase, there is likely little improvement in biomechanics. Through study of running technique and with drills, biomechanics can also be made more efficient. This would potentially further increase pace gains at the same effort.
Rated or Relative Perceived Exertion during exercise as a means to free ourselves of numbers and push mentally. Pace can be referred to later. Note, a basic scale of RPE is below. 1 – Very light, Walking for example or riding a bike with your children.2 – Light, brisk walk.3 – Moderate, really easy jog.4 – Somewhat heavy, steady paced "normal gait" jog or "normal" easy bike ride.5 – Heavy, starting to work and push yourself. Likely Top Z2, speaking in sentences still possible. 6 – Heavier, speaking is short sentences7 – Very heavy, short word answers due to heavy breathing or focused effort. Likely hitting Z4.8 – Hard work now, pure Z4.9 – 98% of what you can do, your pushing, Some cal this zone 5A10 – ALL you have. Caution as this is where injuries occur. The idea is to free ourselves of data in this workout. After the workout review and see how the perceptions were relative to actual. If you had a power meter, some other numbers relative to FTP (Functional Threshold Power) ....1 - 20% 2 - 35% 3 - 45% 5 - 60% 6 - +/-80% 7 - 90% 8 - 100% 9 - 120% 10 - ++++
Heart rate zones are defined by the points where the body uses fat (potentially infinite energy source energy wise) as the primary source of fuel and the inability to process lactate acid from the cells in use. Zone 2 roughly corresponds to the point an exertion level which is highly fat burning and the bodies ability to flush lactate is largely effective. Zone 4, is the point of glycogen (a finite energy source) being the prime energy source and the build up of lactic acid occurs. Zone 3 is the cross over. The goal of any good training program is to to do much of the training at Zone 2 in the early base build in phases, then progress to an increase of Zone 4 efforts as training progresses. The goal of endurance training is make the athlete more efficient at pace. The zone 4 intervals push the bodies ability to cleanse lactic and burn fat to higher levels of exertion. However, too much training in the grey area, zone 3, and the body does not adapt. Through disciplined training, the bodies efficiency will increase. As such, the pace at a given exertion level (possibly measured in HR) will be greater than it was some months prior. Faith in the process is key. On race day, pending the goal time, a Z3 or possibly Z4 effort, for much of the race may be possible. Provided the training was done well.
Hear rate zones are defined by the points where the body uses fat (potentially infinite energy source energy wise) as the primary source of fuel and the inability to process lactate acid from the cells in use. Zone 2 roughly corresponds to the point an exertion level which is highly fat burning and the bodies ability to flush lactate is largely effective. Zone 4, is the point of glycogen (a finite energy source) being the prime energy source and the build up of lactic acid occurs. Zone 3 is the cross over. The goal of any good training program is to to do much of the training at Zone 2 in the early base build in phases, then progress to an increase of Zone 4 efforts as training progresses. The goal of endurance training is make the athlete more efficient at pace. These zone 4 intervals push the bodies ability to cleanse lactic and burn fat to higher levels of exertion. However, too much training in the grey are, zone 3, and the body does not adapt. Given the above, the easy days are to be easy 90 - 95% zone 2. The hard days need to be hard when asked for, +/-25% of the work load conducted at Z4. Over the period of a given training week, the base period will have less than 5% Z4. As the build and peak are moved to, the zone 4 will increase to +/-15% of a weeks volume. Ideally, the athlete will avoid Zone 3 as much as possible. It should be noted, a power meter on the bike, can make training by zone considerably more accurate and beneficial.
An indoor trainer value depends on the view point of the user. Inclimate weather, traffic, pollution, training quality, etc...are all high value reasons to consider indoors. The cost of an indoor trainer could be equal to or more than a good bike. So this too must be considered in the value equation. Training indoors does have its benefits though. Focus, no traffic, no wind, no interruptions all lead to higher quality workouts. A "smart" trainer can also provide interactivity to conduct group work outs, gain more data (power) or be with "slower" companions if in a group setting.